History of Belgrade
The capital of the Republic of Serbia, Belgrade, is one of the oldest cities in Europe. Its history, at times very stormy, has lasted for 7000 years. The area around the large rivers, Sava and Danube, today’s Belgrade, was inhabited even in the Paleolithic period. From the older stone age, date the skull of Neanderthals and the remains of human bones.
These archaeological findings were found in the quarry at Leštane, in a cave on Cukarica and near the Bajloni market. Remains of late Stone Age culture were found in Zarkovo, Vinca and the Upper Town, above the confluence of the Sava and Danube. This shows that the area of Belgrade was settled continuously, and that the intensity of colonization was stronger over time.
Many of today’s suburbs in Belgrade surroundings lie in the cultural layers of earlier prehistoric settlements. Vinca near Belgrade is one of the most important cultural sites of prehistoric period. Archaeological excavations in the Upper Town, Karaburma, Zemun, Vinca and Rospi bridge, confirm the assumption that the area of Belgrade was densely populated and that its population engaged in agriculture and other economic activities. On these sites (in Belgrade, near Belgrade) were discovered necropolis of the Metal and Bronze Age, as well as the evidence of different cultural influences.
Belgrade fortress was built on the high place above the confluence of the Sava and Danube in the period from I to XVIII century, as a function of the complex of the defense character. The fortress is today a museum of history of the Serbian capital. This unit consists of herself Belgrade Fortress, divided into Upper and Lower Town, and Kalemegdan Park. Belgrade Fortress in the 18th century represented one of the most powerful military strongholds in Europe. Belgrade Fortress got its final shape in the late 18th century. In the war destructions during the past decades nearly all buildings in the Upper and Lower Town were destroyed, and the walls were greatly damaged. To the Belgrade Fortress lead Knez Mihailova Street and Uzun Mirkova Street . In this direction there are major tower gates -Stambol Gate (internal and external) and the Sahat Gate. The medieval fortress had entrance on the eastern side (near today’s Zoo), through Zindan-gate and gate Despot’s gate of the Upper Town. Lower Town is approached through the Bulevar Vojvode Bojovica (Vidin Gate) and from Karađorđeva Street (Dark Gate).
Kalemegdan Park is the most beautiful and biggest park in Belgrade, but also the most important cultural and historical monument, which dominates the Belgrade fortress overlooking the confluence of the Sava and Danube. The name Kalemegdan applies to the wide plateau around the fortress that was in the eighties of the 19th century turned into a park. Plato, when the fortress was the main military stronghold of Belgrade, served to observe and wait for the enemy to fight. The park is set to a number of monuments of cultural and public workers, within in this complex include the Military Museum, Zoo, City Institute for Protection of Monuments of Culture, Arts Pavilion Cvijeta Zuzorić, children’s amusement park, a large number of sports grounds, restaurants.
Mali Kalemegdan 8
Belgrade zoo (Good Hope Garden) is located in the very center of the city, at one of the most attractive city locations – Kalemegdan Park. It was established in 1936 and is one of the oldest homes of animal kingdom in Europe. There dwell 2000 animals with approximately 200 species. It covers the area of 6 hectares and includes many facilities, drinking fountains and fountains, sculpture gallery in the wood, Baby Zoo … The open hours are from 8:00 to 17:00 (winter) and to 20.30 (summer).
Skadarska street, about 500 meters long, is located in the very center of Belgrade. Because of the proximity of the National Theatre in the late 19th and early 20th century, many actors have lived there. With the actors came other artists as well- writers, poets, painters. It is well known that actors (probably because of jitters) do not eat anything before the performance and opportunity to eat something, and drink just after the show,when tension falls and midnight is approaching. As a result, many bars sprung up in Skadarlija, some of the oldest in Belgrade. There, the morning was welcomed by the artists who entered the history of Serbian culture, including Đura Jaksic and Dobrica Milutinovic. Skadarlija was paved with cobblestone, poorly lit, as was the custom in Turkish times, and it kept the old fashioned way today, just the space between the stones was filled with concrete. Skadarska street today is one of the mandatory sites visited by the foreign tourists. There are famous restaurants like Three Hats, Two Deer, There are days, the Traveling Actor which, apart from restaurant with national and Italian cuisine, offers accommodation services as well.
Temple of Saint Sava
This temple is located in the eastern part of Svetosavski square. The preparations have lasted very long for its construction – even from 1894. The foundation was consecrated by Patriarch Barnabas on 15th September of 1935.With German attack on Yugoslavia, on 6 of April 1941 the building process stopped. Although not yet completed, the memorial temple represents an organic part of contemporary colorful silhouette of Belgrade, making it one of its main features. Because of its size, it’s another Orthodox church in the world, which can accommodate 12,000 worshipers.
CHURCH OF SAINT MARK
Bulevar Kralja Aleksandra 17
Church of St..Mark in Tasmajdan was built from 1931 to 1940, at the site of the old church from the 1835. The designed architecture is in the spirit of the Serbian-Byzantine style. By general architectural conception, this temple is most like the monastery of Gracanica. Furnishing and decorating of the temple, however, is not yet completed. In the southern part of the nave is a sarcophagus with the remains of Czar Dušan, brought here from his endowment, the monastery of St..Archangel near Prizren. On the north side is the tomb of white marble in which the buried remains of Patriarch German Djoric. In the church is kept in one of the richest collections of Serbian icons from 18th and 19 century.
The Palace of the Serbian dynasty Obrenovic, in which today is the City Assembly of Belgrade, is located on the corner of Kralja Milana and Dragoslav Jovanovic. It was built between 1882 and 1884, designed by Alexander Bugarski, in the manner of academic architecture of the nineteenth century, with the idea to surpass all the former residence of Serbian rulers. According to the external architecture, this building is one of the most beautiful architectural achievements of the academic Serbia in the nineteenth century.
Njegoševa 43, Zemun
This church, built between the 1725 and 1731, is located in the old historical center of Zemun, under medieval fortress Gardos. As a single-nave building with a two-story bell tower, it was built in Baroque style. It has all the typical characteristics of Baroque churches erected in Srem in the 18th century. The church interior is decorated with richly carved rood screen. The church has one of the richest treasury of ancient cult objects, and a collection of icons from the 18th and 19 century.There are relics of Sts. Apostle Andrew the First Apostle kept in the church..
CHAPEL of ST. PETKA
This church, built around the 1867, is located close to church Ruzica, under the so-called miraculous spring. The present chapel was built in the 1937, designed by architect Momir Korunović. Its interior walls and ceilings are covered with mosaics, which in the eighties of the last century created a painter Djuro Radulovic.
Construction of the White Palace, designed by Alexander Djordjevic completed in1936 It was renovated immediately after World War II, finally arranged and equipped for present purpose at the same time with the Old Palace. The complex of palaces is arranged as an integral surface.
Kralja Petra I 6
Belgrade’s oldest inn, built in the 1823. It was owned by Prince Milos Obrenovic. It was built in the Balkan style. From 1878, when it was sold by the heirs, it has changed owners and names. First, in 1878 it was called “The shepherd”, and in 1892 By Saborna church. As a temporary solution, the owner has just put a question mark, which remains to this day. The inn was frequently visited by Vuk Karadzic in 1830-1831. There was the first pool in Belgrade in 1834.
To mark the thousand years of their stay in Pannonia, Hungarians built a monumental landmark in 1896, and four of the same kind were built in four cities in the extreme limits of their former kingdom. Zemun as the southernmost city in the possession of the Crown of Hungary was one of the four cities. Zemun’s millennium edifice was built on the most prominent part of Gardos hill in the medieval castle ruin from which the only angular towers and parts of the defensive wall remain. Today Gardos stands for a part of Zemun which is distinct with its cultural and historical heritage. The architecture of houses in the Gardos is different from the rural in the rest of Zemun. According to its specific location, the narrow cobblestone streets and tower, Gardos is also great tourist attraction.